Skywatch Line for Friday, September 25, through Sunday, September 27

This is Dudley Observatory’s Skywatch Line for Friday, September 25, through Sunday, September 27, written by Alan French.

This is an exciting weekend for amateur astronomers and casual sky watchers – we have a total lunar eclipse on Sunday night. The eclipse is well timed for the eastern United States, with the eclipse visible from start to finish.

When the Moon is full it is on the opposite side of our Earth from the Sun. Earth casts a shadow into space, and usually the Moon passes above or below the shadow and we simply enjoy a lovely full Moon. When the Moon moves through the shadow, we have a lunar eclipse. On Sunday night the Moon will move completely into the darkest part of the shadow, so we’ll have a total lunar eclipse.

The Earth’s shadow is composed of two parts. The lighter, outer penumbra is where Earth only blocks part of the Sun’s light. The darker, inner umbra Is where the Earth blocks all of the Sun’s direct light. Light, however, is bent or refracted as it travels through our atmosphere. It is also scattered, with the blue end of the spectrum scattered the most. The result is that the light bent into the darker part of our planet’s shadow is mostly red, so a totally eclipsed Moon may appear reddish. How colorful and how bright the eclipsed Moon appears depends on how many clouds are around the edge of the Earth, as seen from the Moon, and how many particulates are in our atmosphere. (Forest fires, volcanoes, and man-made pollution can darken an eclipse.) The Moon is illuminated by the sunrises and sunsets around the Earth.

The Moon will enter the penumbra, the brighter part of the shadow, at 8:12 pm, but it will be some time before the subtle penumbral shading will be visible on the Moon. You might spot it around 8:40 pm.

The Moon will move into the umbra at 9:07 pm and this darkening will be almost immediately obvious. By 10:11 pm the lunar orb will be entirely in the umbra and the eclipse will be total. The Moon will be in the southeast. The Moon will be deepest into the umbra at 10:47 pm and will start leaving the umbra at 11:23 pm, ending totality. It will slip completely out of the umbra at 12:27 am Monday morning, and the last subtle penumbral shading will be visible around 12:55 am. At 1:23 am the Moon will be completely out of the penumbra and the eclipse will be over.

As the Moon moves fully into and through the umbra look for color, perhaps red or copper. Also notice the darkness of the eclipsed Moon. The northern part of the Moon is deeper into the umbra, so it will probably look darker.

No special equipment is needed to watch and eclipse. It is lovely by eye. It can be interesting to watch with any modest optical aid too – binoculars or a small, lower power telescope.

If you’d like to join other people and have telescopic views of the eclipse, consider going to miSci for Dudley Observatory’s Night Sky Adventure: Total Lunar Eclipse. There is a modest admission charge.

Skywatch Line for Friday, September 25, through Sunday, September 27, written by Alan French

This is Dudley Observatory’s Skywatch Line for Friday, September 25, through Sunday, September 27, written by Alan French.

This is an exciting weekend for amateur astronomers and casual sky watchers – we have a total lunar eclipse on Sunday night. The eclipse is well timed for the eastern United States, with the eclipse visible from start to finish. 

When the Moon is full it is on the opposite side of our Earth from the Sun. Earth casts a shadow into space, and usually the Moon passes above or below the shadow and we simply enjoy a lovely full Moon. When the Moon moves through the shadow, we have a lunar eclipse. On Sunday night the Moon will move completely into the darkest part of the shadow, so we’ll have a total lunar eclipse. 

The Earth’s shadow is composed of two parts. The lighter, outer penumbra is where Earth only blocks part of the Sun’s light. The darker, inner umbra Is where the Earth blocks all of the Sun’s direct light. Light, however, is bent or refracted as it travels through our atmosphere. It is also scattered, with the blue end of the spectrum scattered the most. The result is that the light bent into the darker part of our planet’s shadow is mostly red, so a totally eclipsed Moon may appear reddish. How colorful and how bright the eclipsed Moon appears depends on how many clouds are around the edge of the Earth, as seen from the Moon, and how many particulates are in our atmosphere. (Forest fires, volcanoes, and man-made pollution can darken an eclipse.) The Moon is illuminated by the sunrises and sunsets around the Earth. 

The Moon will enter the penumbra, the brighter part of the shadow, at 8:12 pm, but it will be some time before the subtle penumbral shading will be visible on the Moon. You might spot it around 8:40 pm. 

The Moon will move into the umbra at 9:07 pm and this darkening will be almost immediately obvious. By 10:11 pm the lunar orb will be entirely in the umbra and the eclipse will be total. The Moon will be in the southeast. The Moon will be deepest into the umbra at 10:47 pm and will start leaving the umbra at 11:23 pm, ending totality. It will slip completely out of the umbra at 12:27 am Monday morning, and the last subtle penumbral shading will be visible around 12:55 am. At 1:23 am the Moon will be completely out of the penumbra and the eclipse will be over. 

As the Moon moves fully into and through the umbra look for color, perhaps red or copper. Also notice the darkness of the eclipsed Moon. The northern part of the Moon is deeper into the umbra, so it will probably look darker. 

No special equipment is needed to watch and eclipse. It is lovely by eye. It can be interesting to watch with any modest optical aid too – binoculars or a small, lower power telescope. 

 If you’d like to join other people and have telescopic views of the eclipse, consider going to miSci for Dudley Observatory’s Night Sky Adventure: Total Lunar Eclipse. There is a modest admission charge.

Night Sky Adventures at miSci Tuesday, October 20, 6 pm “Full Hunters Moon, Supermoon and Planet Conjunction”

On October 27th, the Moon will be located on the opposite side of the Earth as the Sun and its face will be fully illuminated. This full moon was known by early Native American tribes as the Full Hunters Moon because at this time of year the leaves are falling and the game is fat and ready to hunt. This is also the last of three supermoons for 2015 where it may look slightly larger and brighter than usual because its at its closest approach to the Earth.  And on October 28 a rare, 3-planet conjunction will be visible on the morning of October 28. Look to the east just before sunrise for this spectacular event where planets Venus, Mars, and Jupiter will form a tight 1-degree triangle.

Takes place at miSci, museum of innovation and science, 15 Nott Terrace Heights, Schenectady, New York 12308   518-382-7890

$ 3 per person, $5 per family, free for miSci members.

Lead by astronomy educators and volunteers from the Albany Area Amateur Astronomers group.  We practice identifying stars, constellations, and dark sky objects both through telescopes (weather permitting) and indoors in the planetarium.

Amateur astronomers and families are invited to bring binoculars or telescopes. One or more telescopes will be provided by The Dudley.

Family friendly!  Programs will be held rain or shine!

Dudley Observatory @ miSci
15 Nott Terrace Heights
Schenectady, NY 12308
www.dudleyobservatory.org
(518) 382-7890 ext 259
info@dudleyobservatory.org

Octagon Barn Lecture and Star Party, Friday, October 16, 2015, 7 pm

“Do Black Holes Destroy Information?”

Oleg Lunin, Ph. D., Assistant Professor of Physics, University at Albany 

How did the Universe begin? Do black holes destroy information? Can general relativity be unified with quantum mechanics? String theory, being the most promising approach to quantum gravity, attempts to answer these questions. After reviewing the properties of black holes and the information paradox associated with them, this talk will discuss the progress towards the resolution of the paradox made over the last decade.

At each Octagon Barn Star Party we provide an interesting and informative presentation in the barn along with light refreshments. If the sky is clear we head out to view the night sky. Telescopes are provided, amateur astronomers and families are invited to bring binoculars or telescopes as well. Programs will be held rain or shine. Check our website www.dudleyobservatory.org for details on the speakers at each party.

Monthly Astronomy Talks & Dark Sky Star Viewing, Delanson, New York, Fridays in 2015

Family friendly.  Programs will be held rain or shine.

Amateur astronomers and families are invited to bring binoculars or telescopes.

Free Admission – $5 donation graciously accepted

Octagon Barn, 588 Middle Road, Delanson NY 12053

Skywatch Line for Wednesday, September 23rd and Thursday, September 24th written by Louis Suarato.

This is the Dudley Observatory Skywatch Line for Wednesday, September 23rd and Thursday, September 24th written by Louis Suarato.

Autumn arrives in the Northern Hemisphere at 4:21 a.m. EDT Wednesday. This astronomical event, known as the Autumnal Equinox, occurs when the Earth’s celestial equator passes through the center of the Sun from north to south. It is during this time that the terminator is perpendicular to the equator and both hemispheres are equally illuminated. In our latitude, there will be 12 hours, 7 minutes and 51 seconds of daylight Wednesday. The Sun will rise due east and set due west on the day of the equinox.

After sunset, look for Saturn approximately 17 degrees above the southwestern horizon. The 77% illuminated, waxing gibbous Moon will be about 28 degrees above the south-southeastern horizon. Fomalhaut, also known as the Autumn Star, rises in the constellation Piscis Austrinus, at 8 p.m. above the southeastern horizon. Fomalhaut appears at its highest in September and remains above the southern horizon during the months of Autumn. It is the brightest star over that region in an area devoid of bright stars. Fomalhaut is 25.13 light-years away and shines at magnitude 1.15. Fomalhaut is the second brightest star as viewed from Earth, after Pollux, known to have a planetary system. Fomalhaut is a relatively young star estimated to be about 440 million years old. It is also a binary star with its companion star, Fomalhaut B, .91 light-years away from the main star.

Venus rises around 3:30 Thursday morning, followed by Mars a half hour later, and Jupiter at about 5:00. Leo’s brightest star, Regulus, and Mars will separated by less than a degree early Thursday and Friday mornings. Both Regulus and Mars will be 11 degrees to the lower left of Venus. Jupiter will be approximately 10 degrees to the lower left of Mars and Regulus.

Join the Dudley Observatory for the September 27th full lunar eclipse! On this night, the moon will pass through Earth’s shadow, making it appear blood red in the sky. The eclipse will occur from ~8:00pm to 1:30am the night of September 27th, with totality (full eclipse) occurring from ~10-11:30pm. miSci will be open (rain or shine) from 8-11:30pm with moon activities indoors and eclipse observing outdoors. Members of the Albany Area Amateur Astronomers group and Dudley Observatory Outreach Astronomer Valerie Rapson will be on hand with telescopes to help everyone enjoy the view. This is the last full lunar eclipse until 2018. You won’t want to miss it!

Moon activities and eclipse observing are free with museum admission. See misci.org/info for museum information.

Skywatch Line for Monday and Tuesday, September 21st and 22nd

This is the Dudley Observatory Skywatch Line for Monday and Tuesday, September 21st and 22nd written by Joe Slomka.

The Sun sets at 6:55 PM; night falls at 8:30. Dawn breaks at 5:07 AM and ends with the Sun rising at 6:42.

The Moon officially turned First Quarter early Monday morning, but rose in our skies in the afternoon. The eight-day-old Moon is already quite bright, at magnitude minus 10.1 and inhabits Sagittarius both nights. It appears a bit more than half illuminated and sets after midnight.

Saturn is the only other brilliant object in our sky. Saturn still resides in Libra and appears midway between Libra and the head of Scorpius. By nightfall, it is only ten-and-a-half degrees high and sets about 9:30 PM.

Twilight’s end reveals the distant planets Neptune and Uranus. Neptune is nearly eighth magnitude in Aquarius, and Uranus is a brighter 5.7 in Pisces. Both require charts, which are found in astronomy magazines, websites and apps. Neptune is best observed at 11:30 PM, and Uranus at 2:04 AM. Neptune sets at 5 AM, while Uranus remains up past sunrise.

By 10 PM, Perseus is moderately up in the eastern sky. At 11:30 PM on Tuesday, the star Algol (also known as Beta Persei) dims. Algol, the “Demon Star,” varies its light every 2 days, 20 hours and 49 minutes. It fades from second magnitude to third – easily seen by the naked eye. The entire cycle takes about nine hours. John Goodricke theorized that a dimmer star was partially eclipsing a brighter star. In 1889, the new technique of spectroscopy verified this theory. The main star is one hundred times the Sun’s luminosity. The eclipsing star is actually slightly brighter than our Sun. There is a third star that orbits the system once every 1.8 years, but plays little part in the occultation. The system is about 96 light years away and the most easily studied “eclipsing binary.” Astronomy magazines and websites provide timetables of its eclipses. Begin observing about 10 PM.

Astronomical Dawn sees the arrival of three bright planets. Venus rises first, at 3:27 AM. It blazes in the dim constellation Cancer. Under magnification, it appears about a third illuminated. Mars emerges a half hour later and is about eleven degrees to Venus’ lower left. Mars lies about one-and-a-half degrees from Leo’s brightest star, Regulus. Jupiter brings up the rear, rising before 5 AM. All three are great observing targets and all will remain in our skies for the rest of the year. They also experience several close conjunctions later this month.

The Vernal Equinox takes place at 4:21 AM Wednesday. This happens when the Sun dives below the projection of Earth’s equator on to the sky. The Sun also rises exactly East and sets exactly West. The word “equinox” means, “equal night.” Indeed, day lasts 12 hours and night also lasts 12 hours. This event signals the beginning of Fall for the Northern Hemisphere and Spring for those in the Southern Hemisphere.

Skywatch Line for Friday, September 18th through Sunday, September 20th

This is Dudley Observatory’s Skywatch Line for Friday, September 18, through Sunday, September 20, written by Alan French.

The Moon will reach first quarter very early Monday morning, so a waxing crescent will dominate the early evening skies this weekend. The Moon sets at 9:57 pm Friday, 10:38 pm Saturday, and 11:25 pm on Sunday.

Weather permitting; the Albany Area Amateur Astronomers, in association with NYS Parks, will hold a public star party at 7:30 pm on Friday, September 18, at the Deerfield Pavilion in Grafton Lakes State Park. At star parties telescopes are set up to provide guests with views of a variety of celestial objects – galaxies, nebular, star clusters, and double stars. Lovely ringed Saturn will be visible low in the southwest during the early part of the star party.

All ages are welcome and there is no admission charge. For directions visit this web site, call the Park office 279-1155, or use the address 100 Grafton Lakes State Park Way, Grafton, NY, 12082.

The star party will be canceled if the skies are mostly cloudy. If weather permits, it will be rescheduled for 7:30 pm on Saturday, September 19. In case of possible cancellation, or for more information, call one of the coordinators, Ray (658-3138) or Bernard (658-9144).

If you look fairly high in the southern sky around 9:00 pm you should spot the bright yellow-white star, Altair. If you’re looking at the right star, it has two fainter stars to either side, one roughly to the lower left and one at about equal distance away on the other side. Altair is the brightest star in Aquila, the Eagle, and its name means “the flying eagle.”

Like most of the brightest stars, Altair shines brightly because it is one of our nearer neighbors, lying at a distance of just under 17 light years. The light you see tonight, traveling 186,000 miles every second, left the star in 1998, the year many watched “Armageddon” and “Deep Impact.” The 1956 science fiction classic, “Forbidden Planet,” was about a visit to Altair 5, a planet orbiting Altair.

The star to the lower left of Altair, Alshain, lies almost 48 light years away, while the one to the upper right, Tarazed, is 390 light years from us. As you can imagine, Tarazed is inherently much brighter than Alshain, but its light is dimmed by its greater distance.

Don’t forget to check next weekend’s Skywatch Line for details on the total lunar eclipse on Sunday night, September 27.

Skywatch Line for Wednesday, September 16th and Thursday, September 17th

This is the Dudley Observatory Skywatch Line for Wednesday, September 16th and Thursday, September 17th written by Louis Suarato

The 12% illuminated, waxing crescent Moon can be seen low over the west-southwestern horizon after sunset before setting at 8:30 p.m. Wednesday evening. This is a good time to see “Earthshine” on the Moon. Earthshine is sunlight reflecting from the Earth onto the Moon’s shadowed surface creating a faint glow. It was Leonardo Da Vinci who concluded that Earthshine was created by the Earth’s reflected sunlight. Da Vinci was wrong about sunlight reflecting off the Earth’s oceans onto the Moon’s oceans, since Earthshine occurs when sunlight reflects off the Earth’s clouds, and, of course, the Moon doesn’t have oceans. But given Da Vinci’s perceptions occurred during the early 1500’s, years before even Copernicus’ heliocentric theories were published, it was an amazing discovery. Earthshine, also known as “The Da VInci Glow”, is best viewed 1 to 5 days before and after the New Moon.

You can find Saturn in the constellation Libra, to the upper left of the crescent Moon. Look about 15 degrees over the southwestern horizon. It was September 17, 1789 when William Herschel discovered Saturn’s moon Mimas. Mimas is the 7th largest moon of Saturn, and the 20th largest in the solar system. Mimas’ most outstanding feature is a gigantic crater known as Herschel. This crater measures one-third of Mimas’ 242 mile diameter.

The pre-dawn hours welcome the arrival of three planets. Venus is the first to rise at 3:40 a.m. Thursday, followed by Mars at 4:08 and Jupiter at 5:15. Look over the eastern horizon for all three planets. Continue to follow these planets as they draw closer during October.

The Dudley Observatory will host two events this week. The first is a lecture and star party at the Octagonal Barn in Delanson, NY on Friday, September 18th, beginning at 7 pm. The lecture will be given by Dudley Observatory’s archivist Josh Hauck on “A Scientific Sweatshop: The Industrialization of American Science and the Women of Dudley Observatory”. The Dudley Observatory will also be hosting “International Observe the Moon Night” at MiSci in Schenectady, beginning at 7 pm on Saturday, September 19th. More information about these events can be found at www.dudleyobservatory.org.

The Albany Area Amateur Astronomers will be hosting a Star Watch on Friday, September 18th at Grafton Lake State Park. If the Friday event is cancelled, it will be held Saturday night.

Night Sky Adventures @ miSci Tuesday, August 18, 8pm “Perseids Meteor Shower”

The Perseids is one of the best meteor showers to observe, producing up to 60 bright meteors per hour at its peak. It is produced by comet Swift-Tuttle, which was discovered in 1862. The shower runs annually from July 17 to August 24 and peaks on the night of August 12th and the morning of the 13th. The thin crescent moon will be no match for the bright Perseids this year so be prepared for best viewing from a dark location after midnight. Meteors will radiate from the constellation Perseus, but can appear anywhere in the sky.

miSci, 15 Nott Terrace Heights, Schenectady, New York 12308 518-382-7890

$3 per person, $5 per family, free for miSci members.

Lead by astronomy educators and volunteers from the Albany Area Amateur Astronomers group. We practice identifying stars, constellations, and dark sky objects both through telescopes (weather permitting) and indoors in the planetarium.

Amateur astronomers and families are invited to bring binoculars or telescopes. One or more telescopes will be provided by The Dudley.

Family friendly! Programs will be held rain or shine!

Dudley Observatory @ miSci
15 Nott Terrace Heights
Schenectady, NY 12308
www.dudleyobservatory.org
(518) 382-7890 ext 259
info@dudleyobservatory.org

Dudley’s Night Sky Adventures @ miSci

Tuesday, July 21, 2015 8pm – New Horizons at Pluto.

NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft is scheduled to arrive at Pluto after a nine and a half year journey. Launched on January 19, 2006, this will be the first spacecraft to visit Pluto. New Horizons will give us our first close-up views of the dwarf planet and its moons. After passing Pluto, the spacecraft will continue on to the Kuiper belt to examine some of the other icy bodies at the edge of the Solar System.